Thursday, June 22, 2017

High Density vs Low Density Trash Bags...does it matter?

High Density vs Low Density Trash Bags...does it matter?

Which liners do I need?
In a word, yes!  There are hundreds of sizes and gauges of liners out there.  If you have a large facility it is likely you have several different sized trash bins.

To keep things simple, you may be buying just one or two liners thinking "one size fits all".  However, you may actually be spending more money in the long run. Why? Depending on the location of your garbage bins, garbage itself can vary significantly in weight and size.  For example, a trash liner used in restrooms contains for the most part paper towels or lightweight material. Therefore, a lighter gauge liner can be used verses a liner that may be used in a break room, kitchen, cafeteria or shop floor.

Where you throw things away as well as choosing the right size and gauge liner can save you money.  To do this below are the pieces of information you will need to determine how you can choose the most cost effective way to purchase trash liners.

Choosing the right Density, Size, Weight & Color

Are you using the most cost-effective option?  Let's see...
  1.  Find out what your annual spend on trash liners.
  2.  Find out what size trash bins you are using.
  3.  Find out how many trash bins you use.
  4.  Find out where your trash bins are located.
  5.  Find out what kind of trash goes into each trash bin.

Industrial Trash Liners
Low Density Trash Liners
After you have gathered the above information you are now ready to choose the right density, size and color liners you need.

How To Choose The Right Density

What kind of garbage gets tossed in specific locations throughout your facility determines the right density.  Will the bag need to contain sharp objects?  Is the trash heavy or wet?  If yes, you will need linear, low-density polyethylene bags.

Low Density Liners (LLD)
  • Made of puncture and tear-resistant resin
  • Great for waste that has sharp or jagged edges
  • Great for heavy, wet or sharp objects
  • Great for tough transport conditions

Low-Density Liners Key Characteristics

    •    Quiet when moved - No "crinkly" sound
    •    Easier to start or puncture a hole in than HD
    •    A hole will spread less quickly than HD
    •    Gauge (thickness) measured in MIL
    •    Most common type in the industry

Low-density trash liners are great for kitchens, construction areas or outdoor trash cans.

Industrial Trash Liners
High Density Trash Liners
High Density Liners (HD)
  • Best for soft refuse (office, restroom, paper)
  • Great for cans without edges, paper, food, smooth heavy objects
  • Three times stronger than ordinary polyethylene
  • Lower-gauge resin, which is more temperature-resistant from -40 to 212 degrees

High-Density Liners (HD) Key Characteristics

  • Makes 'crinkly' noise when you move it
  • Harder to start or puncture a hole in than Low Density (LLD)
  • Once a hole is started, will spread quickly or "zipper"
  • Thinner than LLD, but can hold same or greater weight as LLD liners
  • Gauge (thickness) measured in Micron (MIC)
  • Substantial cost savings on a per-liner basis

The lighter construction of high-density bags can also help lower freight, storage and warehousing costs.  So don't pay for the extra weight if you don't need it.

What's the Right Size?

If you are using more 'bag' than you need, you are wasting money.  How do you know?  Take a walk around your facility and look at how the bags fit each bin or can.  If a bag hangs down over the edge of the can or receptacle by more than 4 inches, you are using too much bag for the job.

What About Weight?

A common misconception is weight or gauge.  Many people believe that the heavier the gauge or thickness of the plastic, the better, or stronger the bag.  Today this is not necessarily the case.  The technology in plastic resins has really evolved, and thinner, lighter gauges with more flexibility now do the job of yesterday's heavier plastics.

How much weight does the bag need to hold?  Figure out the average weight of a full can liner in its typical environment.  Once you have decided on that weight, use that number to check the Maximum Load Rating of the bag.  This number is available in any liner product listing.

Does Color Matter?

Opaque liners are best for aesthetic reasons and hide unsightly trash.  This is important in hospitality environments where trash might need to be carried through common areas.  Clear bags are often used for recycling and orange bags are often used along roadsides or somewhere visibility could potentially be an issue.  For medical waste, bags that feature the bio-hazard symbol are essential.

Yes, choosing the right liners is a little work but is definitely worth the effort if you are interested in saving money.

Monday, January 30, 2017

Biodegradable, Compostable or Recyclable - What's The Difference?

Eco Friendly FAQ's

Biodegradable, Compostable or Recyclable - What's The Difference?

Over the past 10 to 20 years the marketing industry has successfully made the general public conscious of the need to make informed choices when it comes to disposable paper products.  Most people have heard all the terminology such as biodegradable, compostable and recyclable and have seen the symbols on the bottom of plastic containers but what do them mean?

We have included a list of the most frequently asked questions for easy reference to help you to make the best decisions when it comes to buying your paper products.

What does compostable mean?

Compostable means that a product is capable of disintegrating into natural soil.  This typically must occur in about 90 days.

What do the 3 arrows in the recycle symbol mean?
* Collection
* Manufacturing
* Purchase of recycled content products.

What do the terms pre/post consumer mean?

Post:  materials that have been returned, recycled and reborn into a second life.
Pre:  materials that were discarded or leftover when used to make something else, such as factory trimmings, damaged or obsolete products and overruns.

Is plastic compostable?

A plastic may be degradable but not biodegradable or it may be biodegradable but not compostable (that is, it breaks down too slowly to be called compostable or leaves toxic residue).

How can I reduce my paper waste by changing my margins?

Open a new Microsoft Word Document.  Click File.Page Setup.  From the Margins tab, change the Left, Right, Top and Bottom margins to 0.75".  At the bottom of that screen select "Default".  This one change will reduce paper consumption by about 4.75%.  If it spread nationally, that would result in 380,000 tons less paper consumed.

*This idea has been formalized by Tamara Krinksy.  (

How can I tell that my product is compostable?

In North America, the Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI) is the 3rd party agency that determines if products are commercially compostable according to ASTM standards.

*BPI's certification logo can be displayed on the actual product and packaging materials.

Why can't I recycle everything?

In short, not everything has a market.  Recycling is a business driven by supply and demand.  By buying products containing recycled materials, we "close the loop" and markets are developed so recycling those materials makes more economic sense.

Be part of the solution.  BUY RECYCLED!

Is cardboard biodegradable?

When not wet or contaminated with food or oil, cardboard is recyclable.  It is also naturally biodegradable but it's always a good idea to put it in a recycling bin instead of leaving it as litter.

What are the benefits of recycling?

* Keeping material out of the landfill.
* Reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
* Creates jobs.

Are compostable products better even if they just end up in a landfill?

Maybe a little, but not much.  In the regular trash, they are still part of the general waste stream.  The best choice is to use reusable items whenever you can.  The 2nd best is to use compostable products and then actually compost them.

Find a community composting facility near you at

What are some waste minimization practices that I could use in my office, building, or business?

1.  Establish a dinnerware composting systems.
2.  Create & promote a system to report wasteful practices.
3.  Recognize waste reduction/materials management roles in relevant staff job descriptions including administrative assistants, purchasing and building proctors.

Which plastics are recyclable?

Look for symbols 1, 2, 4 & 5 as these plastics are considered to be the safest.  They are recycled into a variety of goods like tote bags, pens, recycling containers, detergent bottles, pallets, brooms, signal lights, ice scrapers and bicycle racks.

Tuesday, January 3, 2017

January is National Mentoring Month

What is Mentoring?

Encouragement Goes A Long Way!
Encouragement Goes A Long Way!
The definition is an experienced and trusted advisor.  It is someone who advises you and helps you make a difference in your life.  It is not to be confused with a coach since a mentor does not tell you how to do things.  A mentor takes a long range view of your development and helps you to see your destination.  A mentor also offers encouragement when needed and helps build self esteem and confidence.

5 Reasons Mentoring Helps

Mentoring has a proven success rate.  Research has proven that a young person with a mentor in their life is more likely to avoid participation in negative behaviors, develop better communication skills and become a more productive member in the community.

Success Go Get It!1.  Teaches young people how to communicate and relate to others.
2.  Helps young people set goals and reach them.
3.  Gives young people an example to follow or role model, a friend and an advocate.
4.  Gives young people someone they can turn to when they have problems.
5.  A Mentor is someone who lets the young person know they matter which builds their self esteem and confidence.

Who can be a Mentor and how?

Anyone.  You can volunteer to assist in programs already mentoring young ones or you can learn how to mentor those around you almost like 'paying it forward'.  We have included some links to programs that you can join.  We can also help young ones around us.  Most of us can recall someone we looked up to when we were young.  You may have been influenced by an extraordinary teacher or older friend who you admired because they had a successful career, successful family or had accomplished a huge successful goal.


Mentoring Proclamation


Local Mentoring Programs

10 Ways To Celebrate...

Areas for Mentoring:  Spiritual, Practical, Academic Mentoring

Mansfield Paper Company, Inc.

Friday, December 9, 2016

Food Wrap Tips - Wax Paper vs. Parchment Paper

What is the difference between Deli Wrap, Wax Paper or Parchment Paper?

Most people know the difference between foil and wax paper but do you know the difference between Deli Paper, Wax Paper or Parchment Paper?  These papers have a variety of different uses.  Packaging your food properly preserves freshness and ensures safe handling.  So we have put together some tips on how to choose the right paper and how to use them.

Wax Paper vs. Parchment Paper

Wax Paper LinersWax Paper and Parchment Papers are both coated.  The difference between them is that Wax Paper is coated with a soybean or paraffin wax and Parchment Paper (available in bleached or unbleached) is coated with silicone.

The silicone coating in Parchment Paper makes it heat resistant and nonstick.  So this makes a perfect liner for baking pans since the food won't stick to the pan.  Wax paper would melt and stick to the pan.

Wax paper is best used to line counter tops and tables when rolling out pies or kneading bread to prevent a mess.  Wax paper is also used to wrap food for cold storage such as hamburgers or brownies since this will prevent them from sticking.

So wax paper is good for cold and parchment paper is good for hot.  Parchment paper can also be used over and over again while wax paper can not.

Parchment paper can be used in most applications that call for wax paper as a non-stick surface.  The reverse is not true, as using wax paper will cause smoke in the oven and affect taste.

Wax Paper Fast Facts

1.  Coated with soybean wax or paraffin - moisture resistant.  Moisture resistance prevents food from getting soggy.
2.  Not for oven use
3.  Single use

Uses for Wax Paper:  wrap cold foods such as hamburgers, lining pizza boxes, candy dipping, kneading breads

Foil vs. Parchment Paper

Foil is a staple in most kitchens.  Many people use it to line cooking dishes for easier cleanup. Its most popular use is capping hot dishes or wrapping your favorite dessert.  However,  it doesn't provide nonstick properties, unlike parchment paper.  Pieces of foil could end up stuck to the bottom of your roasted vegetables or cookies.

Aluminum Foil RollsAlso, research has found (International Journal of Electrochemical Science that small amounts of aluminum could leak into food while cooking.

So in choosing whether to grab foil or parchment paper a good rule of thumb is to remember that if you don't want it to stick use parchment paper and if you want to insulate, use foil.

Many wonder if it makes a difference which side of the aluminum foil you use.  Actually there is no difference both sides do the same fine job of cooking, freezing and storing food. The difference in appearance between dull and shiny is due to the foil manufacturing process.

Uses for Foil:  wrap sandwiches, wrap meat for short-term freezing, cover bowls to hold in heat and make disposable funnels.

Parchment Paper Fast Facts

1.  Coated with silicone or quilon - nonstick - heat resistant.
2.  Oven safe
3.  Reusable

Uses for Parchment Paper:  line pans during baking, wrap sandwiches.

If you would like additional information on any food wrap please feel free to contact Mansfield Paper Company at  We have 70 years experience in assisting people with the best product for their needs.

Wednesday, January 6, 2016

Should You Buy Remanufactured Ink?


Let's face it everyone wants to save money.  At the same time no one wants to sacrifice quality of product to do it.  So let's examine some questions about buying remanufactured ink and see how it works and find out if it is right for you.

Just think of all the things we would not have without printers. No books, no education, no flyers, no contracts, the list is endless. Unfortunately, buying new cartridges to keep our printers running whether at home or at work costs a lot of money. So, do a little research and start saving money now and the environment later. We have some things to consider before you make your next ink and toner purchase.
Remanufactured Ink & Toner - How It Works

The empty cartridges are sent back to the manufacturer and disassembled so that each part can be inspected for its structural integrity.  If any of the parts are too worn out or broken they replace them. They then clean them up, reassemble them and the cartridge is refilled. Cartridges can be remanufactured several times before being thrown out.

 "When you stand to save up to 30% on the product, it begs your attention to check it out."

Should You Buy Remanufactured Ink & Toner?

There are many people who are afraid of remanufactured products, thinking the product is inferior or that it loses its integrity being reused. Although there are some manufacturers out there that do cut corners you can find a manufacturer that will guarantee their product with 100% money back guarantee. When you stand to save up to 30% on the product, it begs your attention to check it out. Don’t you think?
Benefits of Buying Remanufactured Ink & Toner Cartridges

Let's face it, everyone wants to save money. There is an opportunity for you to save 30% by purchasing remanufactured ink and toner over name brands. Whether a company is large or small this kind of savings is hard to ignore. When you consider the cost of ink and toner prices, this can translate into savings of hundreds of dollars.
An additional major benefit of using remanufactured toner cartridges is the environmental impact. Reusing any product has a positive impact on the environment. By recycling toner cartridges, thousands of empty cases are diverted from being thrown into landfills every year. Saving even a few can have a notable impact on our environment.
To make it easier to buy remanufactured ink and toner there are companies out there that will remove old, empty cartridges either for free or give you a credit towards buying replacements.

What To Look For In Buying Remanufactured Ink & Toner
There are many brands out there and because there is no way to mass-produce remanufactured cartridges, some remanufacturers try to cut corners by just drilling a hole into the cartridge, filling it, and then sending it out. They skip the cleaning and checking of the parts to ensure integrity. In doing so, they produce a lower quality product. Here are some things you can do to be sure you choose a quality brand that’s right for you.
  • Verify the manufacturer is meeting or exceeding the OEM standards and their cartridges are designed and tested for each machine.
  • Make sure they stand behind their product and service by offering 100% Satisfaction Guarantee or your money back on their products.
  • Get references from other people that use them.

3 Steps to find the exact ink and toner you need for your printer. 

Thursday, September 24, 2015

What do San Francisco, Seattle and Portland, Oregon have in common?

What do San Francisco, Seattle and Portland, Oregon have in common?  They are all cities that ban foam.  New York just overturned a ban that lawmakers had voted in 2013 to ban foam.

This is the article I was reading this morning, "Judge Overturns New York City Ban on Plastic Foam Containers by Jake Pearson, Associated Press" and it mentions that there are 21 companies that would buy used containers from the city.  So if there are companies willing to recycle why are they saying "There is no way to effectively recycle it."  It sounded like someone needs to create a program to get the 30,000 tons of foam into the hands of the people who want to recycle it. Don't you?

I did a quick internet search to see how easy it would be to find at least one of these foam recycling companies near me.  Immediately I found some.  One is ReFoamIt located in Massachusetts and they have a list of things they can recycle and a list of things that can not be recycled.

Foam Containers With Rim
For Easy Stacking

We can all help!

Below are all the ways you can recycle your foam at ReFoamIt!
  • Individuals can recycle their foam by dropping your foam at 25 Mohawk Dr., in Leominster, MA.
  • Businesses may have their foam picked up or they can drop it off at the facility.
  • Municipalities have opportunities to have ongoing collection/recycling programs at your own facilities.  For more information visit their website or call
    508-872-2323 or call 508-864-8723.

Black Foam To-go Containers
Upscale Restaurants!
Foam containers do have benefits as being a great way to keep your take-out and to-go food warm.  They also have a foam to-go container that has a rim making them easier to stack without tipping.  Ideal for your customers to get their food home without spills.  The most popular foam container is the 3 compartment foam container.

If you are looking for alternative to-go containers or would like to see the latest takeout containers contact Mansfield Paper Company at 800-225-4641 or now!

Tuesday, September 22, 2015

2 Reasons You Need Custom Print Cups

When it comes to which cup to buy for your coffee business I would have to say a custom print cup is the number one choice.  Although the cost is definitely more than a stock design hot cup it is well worth the investment because it serves two purposes for your business your coffee and your marketing.  People bring the coffee everywhere. 

I remember years ago my husband and I were in a foreign country and I wanted a coffee.  We were in a large city and we walked everywhere looking for any kind of cafe that serves coffee when suddenly I spotted a woman walking with a Starbucks coffee.  I immediately asked her where the Starbucks was and she gave us directions.  So your cup is a tiny billboard that is in the hands of people going everywhere.

Full Color Printed Hot Cups

    Turn your cups into a billboard with this cup's Hi-Definition, full-color print, you can add ALL your marketing buzz – not just your logo.  Perfect for coffee shops, events, meetings, safety programs, and seminars - any place you want to influence coffee and hot beverage drinkers.
    If your customers are taking their coffee to go nothing tells your customers you care more than a coffee plug!  There is nothing worse than putting your coffee in the cup holder in your car and finding your cup in a puddle when you arrive at work.  So take care of your customers and plug them up.

    If you choose a stock cup design for your business I suggest our Perfectouch Hot Cups.  They are so comfortable to hold.  It is like a cushion around the cup and you don't have to use cup sleeves.  They come in beautiful designs.

    If you are starting a new business or looking for some new ideas to freshen up your coffee shop contact Mansfield Paper Company at 800-225-4641 or now!

    Tuesday, September 15, 2015

    Why Join A Farm Share?

    Berry Baskets display your produce perfectly.
    Half Pint Berry Baskets4" x 4" x 2"
    My favorite time of year is Berry Season!  Nothing beats fresh berries to top or fill your favorite desserts.  Blueberry Pies, Strawberry Shortcakes, Raspberry Squares, YUM!

    Why Join A Farm Share?

    I was encouraged to join a Farm Share by a co-worker.  She spoke so highly of it I just couldn't wait to try it.  I chose the Farm she was currently going to and I am hooked!

    I loved receiving all the beautiful organic produce.  But what I enjoyed the most was it introduced me to produce that I wouldn't have ever tried otherwise.  We actually had to search online for how to cut, cook or serve certain things we received at the farm.  My husband loves the challenge of trying new recipes.  I love the results!  So this was perfect for us.

    Pick Your Own Berries!

    Even more than produce in large amounts I enjoyed being able to walk the fields myself and pick our berries.  We were created to do this and it took a Farm Share for me to get back to it.  Sometimes we allow ourselves to get so busy we don't take the time cultivate the ground so to speak.

    Use Recycle Your Baskets!

    There was another aspect of Farm Sharing I notice and like and that is the fact that they have Berry Baskets available for you to use.  I say use because we were asked to bring them back the next week to refill them to save on usage.  I love when businesses encourage people to recycle (reusing is technically recycling) things.  Don't you agree?  I believe every little bit helps.

    Freshly Picked Wild Flowers!

    Oh I almost forgot the best part of my Farm Share...the Wild Flowers!  Included some of the weeks I was able to pick my own arrangement.  It was the highlight of my day coming home with fresh flowers for my kitchen or to bring a friend.

    I recommend stopping into your local farm.  I have yet to talk to someone who doesn't rave about their experience with Farm Shares no matter where they go.  Our personal experience that I am writing about is at Red Fire Farm in Granby, Massachusetts.  I love them.

    If you are looking for Berry Baskets or Produce Bags, Produce Bag Stands or anything else for your Farm Stand call Mansfield Paper 800-225-4641 or now! 

    Thursday, September 10, 2015

    Tips For Saving Money On Office Supplies

    "There is nothing better
    than getting a reward for
    something you need!"

    Like all of us I love saving money.  I have a tip to saving money on office supplies that I will share.

    When ordering something I "need" I look to see if ordering more at once will save me money.  So even when I only need one this month if I save in shipping or get a nice reward I buy more.  This leads me to a reward I must share!

    On all Tombow correction tapes.  Who doesn't need correction tape in the office?  And correction tape like Post-it Notes come in all kinds of shapes, sizes, colors and more.  More?  What other choices are there you are probably thinking.  There is the Original, Mega, Wide, Refillable, Retro, Grip, Xtreme ADhesive, Permanent Adhesive and Removable Adhesive.  That is allot to choose from.  Of course, if you are like many people and hate too many choices the Original is perfect.
    MONO Original Correction Tape,
    Asst RetroColor Applicators 10/Pack
    On Sale Now!

    Now about the Reward, if you buy $50 worth of Tombow Correction Tape you get a $10 VISA Gift Card and if you buy $100 worth of Tombow Correction Tape you get a $25 VISA Gift Card!

    Buy More And Save!!!

    For more information and to order or call 800-225-4641 now!

    Download Rebate Form.

    Wednesday, September 9, 2015

    7 Ingredients For A Successful Startup Business

    7 Ingredients for Successful Startup Businesses!It is not easy to startup a business in today's market.  It takes careful planning and strategic marketing to get your name out there and real customer's in.  We have some low cost ideas that any business can start with.

    1. Marketing - Custom Print Promotional Merchandise such as Pens, Glasses, Mugs, T-Shirts, Bags, Totes, etc.

    2. Brand Awareness ​-​ Custom Print Cups, Printed Ice Cream Containers, Printed Soup Containers, Printed Napkins, etc.

    3. Make Your Customers Feel Loved​ - Give A Small Gift such as a Promotional Pen, Branded T-Shirt, Lollipops, etc.

    4. Give Them A Reason To Come Back - Loyalty Cards to Save them Money, Coupons, etc.

    5. Keep It Fresh - Change Seasonal Decorations monthly. Party World and other things has ​everything you need for every Season or Celebration.

    6. Save Money - Sign up for Sale Alerts, ask for Free Samples to test new promotional ideas, ask for bulk purchasing prices.

    7. Save Time - One Stop Shopping for ALL Your Business Needs!

    Of course if you can't afford all of the above you certainly can try at least one.  The key is careful planning and finding a paper company that will support all your needs from paper supplies to promotional products.

    Visit our website for a free quote on custom print options for your new business!  Call 800-225-4641 Now!

    Friday, September 4, 2015

    Tired Of Being Treated Like A Bid?

    Mansfield Paper has been selling school systems since 1946. However, about 16 years ago we saw the need to have a dedicated School Specialist. Why? Because of the growing challenges Foodservice Managers have in carrying out their responsibilities. We felt compelled to act by having a dedicated full-time School Specialist who works as your advocate to get what you need when you need it.

    We know that most school districts have to administer all aspects of school meal programs in accordance to local, state and federal policies. Not an easy job! We help in meeting those policies by offering the products you need and making sure you have them when you need them. 

    School FoodserviceTake for instance portion control. We know the challenge involved in making sure the meals are served in the appropriate container, souffle cup or compartment tray. We make sure we have in stock ready to ship the product you need. 

    Many universities are instituting programs that support our natural resources. We not only assist schools in their desire to be eco-friendly we encourage it!  

    These are just two areas that we will mention today of areas we have been helping schools but rest assured there are many reasons why Mansfield Paper is surpassing customer expectations in servicing Public Schools and Universities across the United States.

    Top 4 Reasons Schools Prefer Mansfield Paper

    1.  We understand your needs:
    • Our School Specialist, an expert in the field, knows your account needs, has extensive knowledge of product features and benefits and is ready to help you with any questions or concerns.
    • We are Always Reachable via Phone, Fax, Email or Live Chat
    • We give you dedicated Personalized Service!
    • We have 60+ Years of Experience in the Industry
    2.  Unequalled benefits:
    • You asked, we listened! Now we have 24 hour Online Ordering! (Upgraded upon customer request)
    • Live Online Customer Service (with a real person)… no more long distance calls!
    • We resolve issues from Ordering, Delivery, and Billing as quickly as possible
    • Competitive pricing available because of the vast array of schools we currently service.
    • You are treated as a CUSTOMER, NOT JUST A BID!
    • We are interested in a relationship built upon trust and are always keeping your best interests in mind.
    • Convenient payment terms - credit card, business check or payment terms (with approved credit)
    • 100% satisfaction is guaranteed
    3.  Reduce costs & save time with our retail store, Party World and other things...
    • No more shopping on your own time
    • No charging to your own credit card waiting for reimbursement
    • Delivery to you with stock orders!
    4. School Solutions
    • We have recycling and composting programs in place.
    • A variety of specialty packaging to help reduce your food cost and save you money.
    • We help you feel safe. Our drivers wear identification badges for all school deliveries.
    • Custom promotional products available to help promote fundraisers and increase school spirit.

    We are dedicating ourselves in doing our best to meet all of your Food Service needs! If we are not working for you already,
    give us the opportunity to show you our value goes far beyond the cost!

    "Hire us as your Supplier or Consultant"

    Contact us today!
    CALL 800-225-4641 or fill out our Contact Form.

    High Density vs Low Density Trash Bags...does it matter?

    High Density vs Low Density Trash Bags...does it matter? Which liners do I need? In a word, yes!  There are hundreds of sizes and gau...